A Preliminary Report on Tiger Status in China

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【Authors】 ZHOU Jinfeng, AN Qinqin, WANG Huo, ZHANG Ming, LAN Yilin, XU Yanjun, WANG Yanwei, MA man, China Biodiversity Conservation and Green Development Foundation  Publish in:2022 July 29th


【Abstract】 Tiger was listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix I. It is also listed in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as Endangered (EN). In order to sort out the tiger population in China, China Biodiversity Conservation and Green Development Foundation (CBCGDF) publishes the preliminary report of the study results.


【Keywords】 Tiger, captivity, IUCN, CITES CoP19


ZHOU Jinfeng, AN Qinqin, WANG Huo, ZHANG Ming, LAN Yilin, XU Yanjun, WANG Yanwei, MA man A Preliminary Report on Tiger Status in China. Biodiversity Conservation and Green Development,July 2022, ISSN2749-9065


Contents

A Preliminary Report on Tiger Status in China

Preface

A. Preliminary Survey of Tiger Data Across ChinaInconclusive2

Preliminary Statistical Data Analysis11

Case: The Plight of 65 Artificially Bred Siberian Tigers in Zhangjiakou, Hebei Province12

B.Chinese Laws and Regulations Related to Tiger Protection13

1.Wildlife Protection Law of the People's Republic of China13

2.Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China14

3.Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Nature Reserves14

4.Opinions on Strengthening Ethical Governance of Science and Technology15

C.Status of Tiger Protection In the World16

D.Commercial and Advertising Involving Tigers

Case: A global Fashion Brand's "Tiger Pet" Advertisement at the Beginning of the Year of the Tiger

E.Tiger-Related Ethical Issues20

F.Suggestions on Tiger Protection22

G.Conclusion24

Preface

The tiger is known as the “king of beasts”.

“It is king of mountain, and its roar brings the valley wind.”

As an endemic species in Asia, tigers have had a profound impact on its cultures. Wild tigers are apex predators and one of the important indicators of healthy ecosystems. In the past century, the number of wild tigers in the world has dropped sharply from 100,000 to less than 3,500. Habitat fragmentation, poaching and other factors have brought about a dramatic loss for tigers and other species. If this trend is not reversed, the ecosystem on which humans and all species depend on will suffer as well. In November 2010, the “International Forum on Tiger Conservation” (as known as the Tiger Summit) held in St. Petersburg, Russia adopted the “Global Tiger Recovery Program” and issued the “Petersburg Declaration”. At the summit, government representatives proposed to work together to promote the protection of wild tigers and their habitats, and designated July 29 each year as “International Tiger Day”.

2022 is the year of tiger, coincides with the Post-

2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, following the “Aichi Targets” proposed by UN. In September 2022, the second International Forum on Tiger Protection will be held in Vladivostok, Russia. From November 14th to 25th of the same year, the 19th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES CoP19) will be held in Panama, during which tigers are a key topic.

With the 2022 International Tiger Day approaching, China Biodiversity Conservation and Green Development Foundation, who has long been engaged with biodiversity conservation, with many other departments, is now releasing the “A Preliminary Report on Tiger Status in China” after an half year research to help protect tigers around the world.

It is worth mentioning that this report is only a preliminary one based on our survey and is far from perfect. With this report, we would like to call on people to pay attention to the living conditions of endangered wild animals such as tigers, protect their habitats, and jointly build a beautiful home where man and nature live in harmony.

APreliminary Survey of Tiger Data Across ChinaInconclusive


Num.

Institution

Province

Species

Population

1

Beijing Zoo

北京动物园

Beijing

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

5

2

Beijing Wildlife Park

北京野生动物园

Beijing

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

11

3

Beijing Wildlife Park

北京野生动物园

Beijing

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

2

4

Badaling Wildlife Park
八达岭野生动物世界

Beijing


10+

5

Shanghai Zoo
上海动物园

Shanghai

Panthera tigris amoyensis

28

6

Shanghai Zoo
上海动物园

Shanghai

Panthera tigris tigris

5

7

Shanghai Wild Animal Park
上海野生动物园

Shanghai


20+

8

Tianjin Zoo
天津市动物园

Tianjin

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

2

9

Tianjin Zoo
天津市动物园

Tianjin

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

2

10

Tianjin Zoo
天津市动物园

Tianjin

Panthera tigris tigris

3

11

Guanghegu Zoo
光合谷动物园

Tianjin

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

1

12

Guanghegu Zoo
光合谷动物园

Tianjin

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

1

13

Chongqing Wild Animal World
重庆野生动物世界

Chongqing

Panthera tigris tigris

38

14

Chongqing Wild Animal World
重庆野生动物世界

Chongqing

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

17

15

Chongqing Zoo
重庆动物园

Chongqing

Panthera tigris amoyensis

5

16

Chongqing Zoo
重庆动物园

Chongqing

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

4

17

Shijiazhuang Zoo
石家庄动物园

Hebei

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

10

18

Shijiazhuang Zoo
石家庄动物园

Hebei

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

9

19

Qinhuangdao Wildlife Park
秦皇岛野生动物园

Hebei


7+

20

Baoding Zoo
保定市动物园

Hebei

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

2

21

Cangzhou Zoo
沧州动物园

Hebei


12

22

Tangshan Zoo
唐山动物园

Hebei

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

4

23

Tangshan Zoo
唐山动物园

Hebei

Panthera tigris tigris

4

24

Hengshui Wildlife Park
衡水野生动物园

Hebei


20+

25

Xingtai Zoo
邢台动物园

Hebei

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

2

26

Taiyuan Zoo
太原动物园

Shanxi

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

12

27

Linfen Zoo
临汾动物园

Shanxi

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

2

28

Fenzhou Folk-Custom Park
贾家庄汾州民俗文化园

Shanxi

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

2

29

Shilamulun Park
西拉木伦公园

Inner Mongolia

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

2

30

Daqingshan Wildlife Park
大青山野生动物园

Inner Mongolia

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

6

31

Ordos Wildlife Park
鄂尔多斯野生动物园

Inner Mongolia


4

32

Baotou Labor Park
包头市劳动公园

Inner Mongolia


3

33

Benxi Zoo
本溪市动物园

Liaoning


5

34

Dalian Forest Zoo
大连森林动物园

Liaoning

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

22

35

Dalian Forest Zoo
大连森林动物园

Liaoning

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

14

36

Dalian Forest Zoo
大连森林动物园

Liaoning

Panthera tigris tigris

1

37

Shenyang Forest Zoo
沈阳森林动物园

Liaoning

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

29

38

Anshan Zoo
鞍山市动物园

Liaoning


2

39

Jinzhou Zoo
锦州动物园

Liaoning

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

1

40

Changchun Zoo
长春市动植物园

Jilin

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

17

41

Harbin Northern Forest Zoo
哈尔滨北方森林动物园

Heilongjiang


60+

42

Jixi Zoo
鸡西市动物园

Heilongjiang


6

43

Longsha Zoological and Botanical Garden
齐齐哈尔龙沙动植物园

Heilongjiang


21

44

Hongshan Forest Zoo
南京市红山森林动物园

Jiangsu

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

2

45

Hongshan Forest Zoo
南京市红山森林动物园

Jiangsu

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

4

46

Nanjing Pearl Spring Park珍珠泉野生动物生态园

Jiangsu


100+

47

Nantong Forest Safari Park
南通森林野生动物园

Jiangsu


48

48

Xinpu Park
新浦公园

Jiangsu


1

49

Wuxi Zoo
无锡动物园

Jiangsu


5

50

Xuzhou Zoo
徐州动物园

Jiangsu

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

3

51

Xuzhou Zoo
徐州动物园

Jiangsu

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

1

52

Hangzhou Safari Park
杭州野生动物世界

Zhejiang


5

53

Hangzhou Zoo
杭州动物园

Zhejiang

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

2

54

Hangzhou Zoo
杭州动物园

Zhejiang

Panthera tigris tigris

1

55

Wenzhou Zoo
温州动物园

Zhejiang

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

3

56

Wenzhou Zoo
温州动物园

Zhejiang

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

6

57

Ningbo Zoo
宁波野生动物园

Zhejiang


10+

58

Fuzhou Zoo
福州动物园

Fujian

Panthera tigris amoyensis

1

59

Yonghong Botanical Garden
福清永鸿野生动物园

Fujian

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

5+

60

Yonghong Botanical Garden福清永鸿野生动物园

Fujian

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

2

61

Xiamen Zhongshan Park Zoo
厦门中山公园动物园

Fujian


5

62

Xiang'an Chinese-African Wildlife Park
翔安中非世野野生动物园

Fujian

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

11

63

Donghu Lake Zoo
泉州东湖动物园

Fujian


3

64

Sanming Zoo
三明动物园

Fujian


6

65

Zhangzhou Zoo
漳州动物园

Fujian


6

66

Hefei Wildlife Park
合肥市野生动物园

Anhui

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

1

67

Hefei Wildlife Park
合肥市野生动物园

Anhui

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

8

68

Anqing Zoo
安庆动物园

Anhui


2

69

Suzhou Wildlife Park
宿州野生动物园

Anhui

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

12

70

Huaibei Zoo
淮北市动物园

Anhui


8

71

Zheshan Park
赭山公园动物园

Anhui

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

3

72

Zheshan Park
赭山公园动物园

Anhui

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

2

73

Nanchang Zoo
南昌动物园

Jiangxi

Panthera tigris amoyensis

40

74

Nanchang Zoo
南昌动物园

Jiangxi

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

2

75

Nanchang Zoo
南昌动物园

Jiangxi

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

1

76

Ganzhou Forest Zoo
赣州森林动物园

Jiangxi

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

2

77

Zhuxiandong Yesheng Zoo
诸仙洞野生动物园

Jiangxi

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

20+

78

Zhuxiandong Yesheng Zoo
诸仙洞野生动物园

Jiangxi

Panthera tigris tigris

79

Jinan Zoo
济南动物园

Shandong

Panthera tigris tigris

13

80

Jinan Zoo
济南动物园

Shandong

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

1

81

Jinan Wildlife World
济南野生动物世界

Shandong


120

82

Qingdao Zoo
青岛动物园

Shandong

Panthera tigris tigris

8

83

Qingdao Zoo
青岛动物园

Shandong

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

2

84

Qingdao Forest Wildlife World
青岛森林野生动物世界

Shandong

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

22

85

Qingdao Forest Wildlife World
青岛森林野生动物世界

Shandong

Panthera tigris tigris

8

86

Zibo Zoo
淄博动物园

Shandong

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

6

87

Zibo Zoo
淄博动物园

Shandong

Panthera tigris tigris

1

88

Dong Ying the Yellow River Delta Zoo
东营黄河三角洲动物园

Shandong

Panthera tigris tigris

19

89

Longkou Zoo and Botanical Garden
龙口市龙口动植物园

Shandong

Panthera tigris tigris

5

90

Nanshan Park
南山公园动物园

Shandong

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

5

91

Judianhu Zoo
寿光巨淀湖风景区动物园

Shandong

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

7

92

Huaifang Zoo
潍坊动物园

Shandong

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

5

93

Zhengzhou Zoo
郑州动物园

Henan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

20+

94

Zhengzhou Zoo
郑州动物园

Henan

Panthera tigris tigris

95

Zhengzhou Zoo
郑州动物园

Henan

Panthera tigris amoyensis

96

The Yinji Animal Kingdom
郑州银基动物王国

Henan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

5

97

The Yinji Animal Kingdom郑州银基动物王国

Henan

Panthera tigris tigris

25

98

Luoyang Wangcheng Park
洛阳王城公园动物园

Henan

Panthera tigris amoyensis

65

99

Luoyang Wangcheng Park
洛阳王城公园动物园

Henan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

5

100

Luanchuan Bamboo Sea Wildlife Park
栾川竹海野生动物园

Henan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

350+

101

Luanchuan Bamboo Sea Wildlife Park

栾川竹海野生动物园

Henan

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

12

102

Jiaozuo Forest Park

焦作森林动物公园

Henan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

4

103

Jiaozuo Forest Park

焦作森林动物公园

Henan

Panthera tigris tigris

2

104

Sanmenxai Zoo

三门峡动物园

Henan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

3

105

Nanyang People’s Park

南阳人民公园动物园

Henan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

2

106

Shangqiu Zoo

商丘动物园

Henan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

20+

107

Wuhan Zoo
武汉动物园

Hubei

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

7

108

Wuhan Zoo

武汉动物园

Hubei

Panthera tigris tigris

1

109

Jiufeng Forest Zoo

武汉九峰森林动物园

Hubei

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

36

110

Sanxia Forest Wildlife World
三峡森林野生动物世界

Hubei


16

111

Xiangyang Park

襄阳公园动物园

Hubei

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

1

112

Shiyan People's Park

Hubei十堰人民公园动物园

Hubei

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

4

113

Xiangwu Mountain Park香吾山生态旅游动物园

Hubei


1

114

Changsha Ecological Zoo长沙生态动物园

Hunan

Panthera tigris amoyensis

8

115

Xiangtan Peace Park

湘潭和平公园动物园

Hunan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

1

116

Hainan Tropical Wildlife Park and Botanical Garden

海南热带野生动植物园

Hainan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

4

117

Guangzhou Zoo

广州动物园

Guangdong

Panthera tigris amoyensis

14

118

Guangzhou Zoo

广州动物园

Guangdong

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

8

119

Guangzhou Zoo
广州动物园

Guangdong

Panthera tigris tigris

2

120

Guangzhou Zoo
广州动物园

Guangdong

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

2

121

  Guangzhou Chimelong Safari Park
广州长隆野生动物世界

Guangdong

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

150

122

  Guangzhou Chimelong Safari Park
广州长隆野生动物世界

Guangdong

Panthera tigris tigris

123

  Guangzhou Chimelong Safari Park
广州长隆野生动物世界

Guangdong

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

124

Shenzhen safari park
深圳野生动物园

Guangdong

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

11

125

Xiangshi Zoo
香市动物园

Guangdong

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

40

126

South China Tiger Park 韶关Panthera tigris amoyensis

Guangdong

Panthera tigris amoyensis

14

127

Shantou Zoo
汕头动物园

Guangdong

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

5

128

Maoming Forest Park
茂名森林公园动物园

Guangdong

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

2

129

Maoming Forest Park

茂名森林公园动物园

Guangdong

Panthera tigris tigris

1

130

Maoming Forest Park
茂名森林公园动物园

Guangdong

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

2

131

Zhongshan Park

佛山中山公园动物园

Guangdong

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

2

132

Zimaling Zoo
紫马岭动物园

Guangdong

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

2

133

Zimaling Zoo

紫马岭动物园

Guangdong

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

2

134

Cunjinqiao Park
湛江寸金桥公园动物园

Guangdong

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

8

135

Nanning Zoo
南宁市动物园

Guangxi

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

8

136

Guilin Zoo
桂林动物园

Guangxi

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

2

137

Pingnan Xiongsen animal world

平南雄森动物大世界

Guangxi


500

138

Wuzhou Zoo
梧州动物园

Guangxi

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

1

139

Liuzhou Zoo
柳州动物园

Guangxi

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

1

140

Chengdu Zoo
成都动物园

Sichuan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

19

141

Chengdu Zoo
成都动物园

Sichuan

Panthera tigris amoyensis

2

142

Caideng Park
彩灯公园动物园

Sichuan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

2

143

Panzhihua Park
攀枝花公园动物园

Sichuan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

1

144

Deyang Zoo
德阳动物园

Sichuan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

5

145

Neijiang Zoo
内江市动物园

Sichuan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

6

146

Cuipingshan Park
翠屏山动物园

Sichuan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

9

147

Yibin Wildlife World
宜宾野生动物世界

Sichuan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

7

148

Guizhou Wildlife Park
贵州森林野生动物园

Guizhou

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

12

149

Guizhou Wildlife Park
贵州森林野生动物园

Guizhou

Panthera tigris tigris

16

150

Guizhou Wildlife Park
贵州森林野生动物园

Guizhou

Panthera tigris amoyensis

1

151

Guizhou Wildlife Park
贵州森林野生动物园

Guizhou

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

31

152

Qianlingshan Zoo
贵阳黔灵山动物园

Guizhou

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

6

153

Qianlingshan Zoo
贵阳黔灵山动物园

Guizhou

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

1

154

Liupanshui Zoo
六盘水动物园

Guizhou

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

16

155

Liupanshui Zoo
六盘水动物园

Guizhou

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

5

156

Yunnan Wild Animal Park云南野生动物园

Yunnan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

150

157

Yunnan Wild Animal Park云南野生动物园

Yunnan

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

158

Kunming Zoo
昆明动物园

Yunnan


2

159

Qushui Zoo
拉萨曲水动物园

Xizang Autonomous Region


3

160

Xi’an Qinling Wildlife Zoo
西安秦岭野生动物园

Shaanxi

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

20

161

Xi’an Qinling Wildlife Zoo
西安秦岭野生动物园

Shaanxi

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

4

162

Baoji People's Park

宝鸡人民公园动物园

Shaanxi

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

4

163

Tianshui Zoo
天水市动物园

Shaanxi

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

5

164

Shenzhou Desert Wild Animal Park
神州荒漠野生动物园

Shaanxi

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

1

165

Zhongshan Park

中山公园

Ningxia

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

1

166

Zhongshan Park
中山公园

Ningxia

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

1

167

Xining wildlife park
西宁青藏高原野生动物园

Qinghai

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

11

168

The Xinjiang Tianshan Safari Park
新疆天山野生动物园

Xinjiang

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

15

169

The Xinjiang Tianshan Safari Park
新疆天山野生动物园

Xinjiang

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

2

170

Kashgar Zoo
新疆喀什动物园

Xinjiang


1

171


Hong Kong



172


Macao



173

Taipei Zoo

台北市立动物园

Taiwan

Panthera tigris tigris

1

Specialized feeding institution

174

The Siberian Tiger Park

东北虎林园

Heilongjiang

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

2000+

175

The Northeast Tiger Park

长春东北虎园

Jilin

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

20

176

The Guilin Xiongsen Tigers and Bears Mountain Village
熊虎山庄

Jilin

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)Panthera tigris ssp. altaicaPanthera tigris amoyensisPanthera tigris tigris

1100

177

Sanya Dragon Tiger Park

三亚龙虎园

Hainan

Panthera tigris tigris

300

178

Meizhuang Hundred Tiger Park熊虎山庄梅庄百虎园

Henan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

50

179

Research Base of South China Tiger Breeding

Panthera tigris amoyensis繁育研究基地

Guangdong

Panthera tigris amoyensis

13

180

Meihuashan South China Tiger Breeding and Research Center

梅花山Panthera tigris amoyensis繁育基地

Fujian

Panthera tigris amoyensis

66

181

Sanzhen Tiger Park

三珍虎园

Hunan

Panthera tigrisssp.tigris(white)

7

182

Sanzhen Tiger Park

三珍虎园

Hunan

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

123

183

Northeast Tiger Base
东北虎基地

Hebei

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

65

Circuses

184

34家有人工虎繁殖证的马戏团
34 Circuses with Artificial Tiger Breeding Licenses

Anhui


584

野外

185

Dai Autonomous Prefecture of Xishuangbanna, Hani-Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Honghe, South rolling river

西双版纳、红河和南滚河

Yunnan

Panthera tigris ssp. corbetti

18

186

Northeast China Tiger And Leopard National Park

东北虎豹国家公园

Jilin and Heilongjiang

Panthera tigris ssp. altaica

55

合计

7116

[1] Note: There are some vacancies in species names, because the information is not available.

[2] Note: “+” means more quantity than shown.. “1” shown in some places may not be accurate because investigators couldn't get specific numbers. Therefore, it is marked with the minimum data “1”.

Preliminary Statistical Data Analysis

Through data retrieval, telephone interview and field investigation, we made a preliminary investigation on the distribution of tigers in zoos, special breeding institutions, circuses and the wild in the past two years. Based on the available data, it is found that there are about 7,116 tigers in China, including the Siberian tiger, Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), South China tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis) and Indochinese tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. corbetti).

Among these, 2,715 are in zoos, 3,744 are in specialized breeding facilities such as the Northeast Tiger Forest Park, Changchun Northeast Tiger Park and Bear Tiger Lodge, and 584 are in 34 circuses with artificial tiger breeding licenses in Suizhou, Anhui Province, which is known as a Hometown to Circus. There are also about 55 wild Siberian tigers distributed in Northeast China Tiger and Leopard National Park, and 14-20 Indochinese tigers distributed in the wild in southwest Yunnan Province.

There are only 3,726-

5,578 tigers living in the wild worldwide, according to the World Conservation Union's (IUCN) latest Red List update on July 21, 2022. Of the 7,116 tigers in China, only 73, about 1%, live in the wild, while the vast majority are distributed in zoos, breeding bases and circuses. China's wild tigers account for only 1.9-1.3% of the global distribution.

Case: The plight of 65 artificially bred Siberian tigers in Zhangjiakou, Hebei Province

On July 25, 2022, the Beijing News and the China Agricultural Film Project Exchange and Cooperation Center reported that an old man named Li Mingyi founded a Siberian tiger artificial breeding base in Xiaodaogou Village, Dongyaozi town, Qiaoxi District, Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province. He raised 65 Siberian tigers at a cost of more than 10,000 yuan per day and had to seek help from the media and the public. According to the report, the base was approved by the State Forestry Administration as a national key protected wild animal artificial breeding base in 2017. Now, all these animals, with no source of income to feed and drink every day, are in dire straits.


B. Chinese laws and regulations related to tiger protection


The tiger is a rare and endangered species globally. It is listed as a protected animal under Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and Endangered species (EN) on the IUCN Red List. The tiger is listed as a first-

class wildlife under state protection in China's List of Key Wildlife under State Protection. Relevant laws and regulations have been sorted out as the following:.

1. Wildlife Protection Law of the Peoples Republic of China

Chapter 2 Protection of wild animals and their habitats.

Article 5 The State shall protect wildlife and their habitats. Peoples governments at or above the county level shall formulate plans and measures for the protection of wildlife and their habitats, and incorporate funds for wildlife protection into their budgets.

The State encourages citizens, legal persons and other organizations to participate in wildlife protection activities through donation, financial aid and voluntary services in accordance with law, and supports the public welfare undertakings of wildlife protection.

The habitat of wild animals prescribed in this Law refers to an important area where wild animal populations live and reproduce in the wild.

Article 6 All organizations and individuals shall have the obligation to protect wildlife and their habitats. Illegal hunting of wild animals and destruction of their habitats shall be prohibited.

Any organization or individual shall have the right to report or accuse the relevant departments and organs of acts in violation of this Law. The competent department of wildlife protection and other relevant departments and organs shall promptly handle reports or complaints according to law.

Chapter 3 Management of Wildlife

Article 21 Hunting or killing of wildlife under special state protection shall be prohibited.

Article 26 Artificial breeding of wildlife under special state protection shall be conducive to species protection and scientific research, and shall not destroy wild population resources. It shall, in accordance with the habits of wild animals, ensure that they have the necessary space for activity and health conditions for their survival, reproduction, and development, have places, facilities and technologies suitable for their breeding purposes, types and development scale, and meet the relevant technical standards and epidemic prevention requirements, and shall not maltreat wild animals.

Article 27 The sale, purchase or use of wildlife under special state protection and their products shall be prohibited.

Article 31 It is prohibited to publish advertisements for the sale, purchase or use of wild animals or prohibited hunting tools. Advertisement for illegal sale, purchase or utilization of wildlife products shall be prohibited.

2. Criminal Law of the Peoples Republic of China

Article 341 of the Criminal Law of the Peoples Republic of China stipulates that whoever illegally hunts or kills rare or endangered wildlife under special state protection, or illegally purchases, transports or sells rare or endangered wildlife and their products under special state protection, shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years or criminal detention and shall also be fined; If the circumstances are serious, he shall be sentenced to fixed-

term imprisonment of not less than five years but not more than 10 years and shall also be fined; If the circumstances are especially serious, he shall be sentenced to fixed-

term imprisonment of not less than 10 years and shall also be fined or be sentenced to confiscation of property.

3. Regulations of the Peoples Republic of China on Nature Reserves

Article 18 Nature reserves may be divided into core areas, buffer zones and experimental areas.

The well-

preserved natural ecosystems and the areas where rare and endangered animals and plants are concentrated and distributed in nature reserves shall be designated as core areas, and no units or individuals shall be allowed to enter. Unless approved in accordance with the provisions of Article 27 of these Regulations, they are not allowed to enter and engage in scientific research activities.

A buffer zone of a certain size can be demarcated on the periphery of the core area, which can only be entered for scientific research and observation activities.

The periphery of the buffer zone is divided into experimental areas, which can be engaged in scientific experiments, teaching practice, visit and investigation, tourism, domestication, breeding of rare and endangered wild animals and plants and other activities.

When the peoples government that originally approved the establishment of the nature reserve considers it necessary, it may delimit a certain area of peripheral protection zone in the periphery of the nature reserve.

4. Opinions on Strengthening Ethical Governance of Science and Technology

In March 2022, the General Offices of the CPC Central Committee and The State Council issued the Opinions on Strengthening Ethical Governance in Science and Technology and issued a notice, requiring all regions and departments to earnestly implement it in light of actual conditions. The document states:

Respect the right to life. Scientific and technological activities should avoid harm or potential threat to peoples life safety, physical health, mental and psychological health to the greatest extent, respect human dignity and personal privacy, and protect the right to know and choose of participants in scientific and technological activities. The use of experimental animals should meet the requirements of "reduce, replace, optimize" and so on.

No unit, organization or individual may endanger social security, public security, biological security or ecological security when conducting scientific and technological activities.


C. Status of Tiger Protection In the World

All tiger subspecies are listed in Appendix I of the United Nations Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). At the 1994 CITES meeting, CITES members - including China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, Singapore, South Korea and Thailand - adopted an agreement to improve and expand tiger protection. Specifically, the parties agreed to enact an internal ban on tiger trade, strengthen border controls, share information on illegal trade, and increase funding for anti-poaching, wilderness conservation, and public education programs.

Tigers are classified as endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The IUCNs Integrated Tiger Habitat Conservation Program (ITHCP) was launched in 2014, a funding program that contributes to the Global Tiger Recovery Program (GTRP), a global effort to double the wild tiger population by 2022. The project includes 12 large-

scale projects involving key tiger conservation landscapes in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Nepal and Myanmar.

Credit: IUCN Red List

In November 2010, the International Forum on Tiger Conservation, held in St. Petersburg, Russia, designated July 29 as World Tiger Day and set a goal of doubling the global wild tiger population by 2022 from then estimated 3,200.

Between 3,726 and 5,578 tigers are now in the wild worldwide, according to new figures released by scientists on July 21, 2022, following a reassessment of the species. The 40 percent increase since the last tiger assessment in 2015 is the result of improved monitoring efforts, suggesting that there are more tigers than previously thought and that the global tiger population appears to be stable or increasing. While this reassessment confirms that tigers remain endangered on the IUCN Red List, population trends show that programs such as the IUCN Integrated Tiger Habitat Conservation Program are succeeding and tigers’ recovery is possible as long as the conservation efforts continue.


B. Commercial and Advertising Involving Tigers

Advertising media is used for the dissemination of advertising to the public carrier, It refers to the material and technical means used to promote commodity or service information. The traditional "four major advertising media" are television, radio, newspaper and magazines.

Advertisement is an important carrier of social civilization. Advertising is an important part of modern service industry and cultural industry. It plays an active role in shaping brand, displaying image, promoting innovation, promoting development, guiding consumption, stimulating domestic demand, spreading advanced culture and building a harmonious society. International brand products, as an important way of brand internationalization in the process of advertising design, shoulder the important mission of displaying the purpose, history and spirit of the brand, especially in the traditional festival, which is not only an important marketing point, but also a window to show the humanistic spirit of the brand. However, while giving full play to the spirit of innovation and displaying creativity, advertising should not violate the idea of ecological civilization. A good advertisement can integrate family, love and friendship, sing the main melody, and promote exchanges and mutual learning between civilizations.

Case: A global Fashion Brands Tiger Pet Advertisement at the Beginning of the Year of the Tiger

At the beginning of the Year of the Tiger in the Chinese lunar calendar, the Italian fashion brand Gucci has launched a series of promotional videos and photos for its Gucci Tiger series. The promotional videos show Guccis fashion clothes and other products, and the advertising shoot features a Tiger design and is shot with a real Tiger. In the advertisement, the tiger is as meek as a pet, prostrate under the model and lick the leftovers from the plate, which conveys the wrong message to the public. On January 16, 2022, China Biodiversity Conservation and Green Development Foundation released a position statement strongly protesting Guccis use of tigers in the 2022 Year of the Tiger commercial: Wild animals are not our pets. We strongly protest against the Italian luxury brand GUCCI for launching a series of advertisements using tigers in the Chinese Year of the Tiger. Globally, tigers are rapidly becoming extinct due to overuse and habitat loss. We have no objection to filming wild animals in natural landscapes in accordance with animal ethics. But this kind of show business and advertising, is not acceptable. Guccis use of tigers for commercial purposes violates business ethics and encourages illegal hunting and trade of endangered animals in disguise. Please join us in saying No to this kind of commercial exploitation of wildlife!

Credit: Gucci


B. Tiger-Related Ethical Issues

According to the changes and evolution laws of nature in history, we can know that every species in nature has its process of production, development and evolution, and some of them have gone extinct due to natural action or force majeure.

The plight of tigers is a microcosm of the sixth mass extinction.

The Earth has been around for 4.6 billion years. If this long period of Earths history is scaled down to a day, the appearance of higher life corresponds to the last two hours. During the “last two hours”, the Earth experienced a total of five mass extinctions of life, including the impact of a comet, which left the Earth without sunlight and oxygen and wiped out most of life. These are natural causes of extinction.

As we enter the Anthropocene, Earth is experiencing its sixth mass extinction. Unlike the previous five mass extinctions, the sixth one was caused by humans. A landmark new report released in 2019 by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) sounded the alarm: about 1 million plant and animal species are now threatened with extinction, many of them within decades, more than at any time in human history. Against this backdrop, the tiger's plight is a microcosm of the plight faced by many wildlife species.

Wang Yanwei, an expert from the Biological and Scientific Ethics Working Committee of the China Biodiversity Conservation and Green Development Foundation, pointed out that under natural conditions, there is no ethical problem with species extinctions caused by changes in natural conditions, such as the extinction of dinosaurs. There are ethical issues with the extinction of species that should not be extinct because of human causes (e.g., habitat destruction, uncontrolled hunting, loss of ecological corridors, capturing wildlife for wildlife shows, etc.). In the case of wild tigers, the same problems exist. According to the principle of sustainable development, we, as the current generation, have the responsibility and obligation to preserve the tiger species for the present generation and future generations. Whether the Siberian tiger, South China tiger or Bengal tiger, the existence of these different tiger species can satisfy the aesthetic needs of human beings to appreciate nature, and they also perform important ecosystem services in the wild. According to the intrinsic value of animals and the non-

anthropocentric view, each animal species has its own unique value independent of man. this kind of value does not depend on whether it can bring benefits to human beings. We cannot destroy this unique value just to meet the needs of human beings, otherwise it is immoral.

In order to keep tigers alive, Wang Yanwei believes that we need to think about the ethical responsibilities and principles of humans towards tigers. First, not to destroy the habitat of the tiger because of economic interests; Second, ensure that there are enough ecological corridors for the reproduction and survival of wild tigers, especially in the construction of ecological corridors between countries, such as the ecological corridor jointly built by China and Russia for wild Amur tigers; Third, minimize tiger performances; Fourthly, appropriate wild training should be carried out on tigers, which can survive in the wild and can meet their survival in the wild, so as to promote the genetic improvement of wild tigers and continue their population. Fifth, in order to reduce the threat to wild tigers caused by trade, do not buy tiger-related products (such as tiger bones as entertainment); Sixth, in order to meet the food source and safety of the wild tigers, do not hunt in their living areas.


C. Suggestions on Tiger Protection

For tiger protection, under the guidance of the concept of harmony between man and nature in the era of ecological civilization, we put forward the following suggestions.

(1) To strengthen the protection of natural habitats; Protect in the wild (not in captivity)

In recent years, as the construction of national park system progresses positively, it has gained remarkable results. In the Northeast Tiger and Leopard National Park, for example, the parks monitoring data showed that by the end of 2021, the number of wild Siberian tigers and leopards in the park had increased from 27 and 42 in the pilot period to 50 and 60, respectively, with more than 10 newly bred tiger cubs and more than 7 leopard cubs monitored, Xinhua News Agency reported. These achievements are undoubtedly remarkable in the world.

In terms of rescue, we suggest that wild conservation, rather than captive conservation, should be vigorously carried out. The case of the Siberian tiger Wandashan in 2021 triggered deep reflection: it was originally living in the wild, but was rescued and moved into the Siberian Tiger Park, almost becoming a breeding tiger. After intense concern and demands from the public, social organizations and the media, the authorities had to release him into the wild. It is hoped that this kind of thinking based on utilization in the past can complete the transition to the new protection in natural habitat under the ecological civilization as soon as possible.

(2) To enhance ecological connectivity and build ecological corridors


Migration is part of the survival strategy of wild animals and plants, and gene flow between different populations is necessary for the long-

term survival of species. Connected habitats allow tigers to exchange genes and keep their populations healthy. Especially with the expansion of infrastructure, we recommend that habitat connectivity should be fully considered at the beginning of planning to allow for migration routes for wildlife, including large animals such as tigers. In this regard, construction companies can also make a big difference in biodiversity conservation.

Today, habitat fragmentation and loss and climate change seriously threaten the persistence of biodiversity and the contribution of nature to human beings. In 2021, the World Conservation Congress (WCC) held by th

e World Conservation Union (IUCN) adopted an important resolution -

- Conservation of ecological Connectivity in the Post-

2020 Global Biodiversity Framework: From the Local to the international Level (resolution WCC-2020-RES-073). China biodiversity conservation and green development foundation (China), large landscape protection center (USA), the German conservation association (Germany), birdlife international (UK), Central America and protection association (costa rica), wetlands international (Netherlands), 46 global conservation organization jointly sponsored the agreement, Calls on the IUCN Director-

General to explicitly integrate “conservation of ecological connectivity” into the IUCN 2021-2024 Plan. The plan also calls on all members to recognize the role of connectivity conservation in underpinning the planet’s life support systems and in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, the three targets of the CBD, and the related targets of other treaties and agreements. Promote and support the integration of connectivity conservation and international cooperation into the post-

2020 global biodiversity framework and other related initiatives, such as the 2030 Agenda and the United Nations Decade for Ecosystem Restoration 2021-2030.

(3) To promote the mainstreaming of biodiversity conservation

Extensive publicity and education activities on biodiversity should be carried out to promote the mainstreaming of biodiversity and improve the scientific quality of the public; Scientific and technological ethics should be followed to improve the animal welfare of captive tigers and ensure their sustainable use; Turning tigers into “show animals” or “cute pets” and other forms of animal cruelty are not encouraged.


D. Conclusion

Nature breeds life and ecology drives the future. Dont wait until there are no more tigers in the forest, until you can only recall the trail of tigers in mythology and books to regret. On World Tiger Day 2022 (Year of the Tiger), let us care for and protect this endangered species, reduce excessive damage to the environment and excessive demand by human beings, refuse to buy wild animal products, refuse animal performances, so that the tiger species can survive in the forest ecosystem.